GARBA

  1. GARBA 177 PH
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBA 177 PH

    Precipitation hardenable stainless spring wire.
    For applications demanding medium fatigue properties.

    GARBA 177PH is a semi-austenitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel with high relaxation resistance at elevated temperatures and excellent fatigue properties. This material has good formability and good form stability during the precipitation hardening heat treatment and a moderate level of corrosion resistance.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Al (%) Ni (%)
    0.09 0.70 1.00 0.040 0.015 16.00 - 18.00 0.70 - 1.50 6.50 - 7.80

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Tensile strength after heat treatment 480C 1h (N/mm²)
    0.30 - 0.65 0.005 - -
    0.66 - 1.01 0.008 - -
    1.02 - 2.26 0.012 - -
    2.27 - 4.01 0.015 - -
    4.02 - 6.26 0.020 - -
    6.27 - 8.00 0.025 - -
    0.30 - 0.40 1925 - 2213 2225 - 2525
    0.41 - 0.50 1900 - 2185 2200 - 2500
    0.51 - 0.65 1850 - 2127 2150 - 2450
    0.66 - 0.80 1825 - 2099 2125 - 2425
    0.81 - 1.00 1800 - 2070 2100 - 2400
    1.01 - 1.25 1750 - 2012 2050 - 2350
    1.26 - 1.50 1700 - 1955 2000 - 2300
    1.51 - 1.75 1650 - 1897 1950 - 2250
    1.76 - 2.00 1600 - 1840 1900 - 2200
    2.01 - 2.50 1550 - 1782 1850 - 2150
    2.51 - 3.00 1500 - 1725 1800 - 2100
    3.01 - 3.50 1450 - 1667 1750 - 2050
    3.51 - 4.25 1400 - 1610 1700 - 2000
    4.26 - 5.00 1350 - 1552 1650 - 1950
    5.01 - 6.00 1300 - 1495 1550 - 1850
    6.01 - 8.00 1250 - 1437 1500 - 1800

    Surface conditions

    Surface performance
    AC-surface 0.30–8.00 mm Ø.
    The AC-coating can be removed before heat treatment by using a 10-20% nitric acid pickle at room temperature.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 190 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 200 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 78 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    Heat conductivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 300
    W/(m* oC) 15.0 15.5 19.0

    Resistivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 300
    nΩm 900 950 1000 1050

    Linear expansion

    Pro oC <30-100 30-200 30-300
    x10-6 13.0 13.5 14.0

    Specific heat capactity

    Temperature oC 100 200
    J/(kg* oC) 480 520

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    Normal procedure for precipitation hardening is heat treatment at 480oC (896oF) for 1 hour and then air cooling. This should be done as soon as possible after spring coiling.  The tensile strength of the wire before and after this treatment is given in the table in previous page.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.

    Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Relaxation And Fatigue Properties

    In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of GARBA 177 PH is illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test spring design.

    Diagram 2-3 show the relaxation properties (loss of load) of springs made from GARBA 177PH subjected to three different stress levels at different temperatures.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4568, AISI/SAE 631, JIS SUS 631

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ASTM A313, AMS 5678, BS 2056 301 S81, JIS G4314

  2. GARBA 177 Premium
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBA 177 Premium

    Precipitation hardenable stainless spring wire. Shaved and EC-tested *)
    For applications demanding high fatigue properties

    GARBA 177 Premium is a semi-austenitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel with high relaxation resistance at elevated temperatures and excellent fatigue properties. This material has good formability and good form stability during the precipitation hardening heat treatment and a moderate level of corrosion resistance. The shaved surface improves the fatigue resistance as compared to GARBA 177PH.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%) Al (%)
    0.09 0.70 1.00 0.040 0.015 16.00 - 18.00 6.50 - 7.80 0.70 - 1.50

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Tensile strength after heat treatment 480C 1h (N/mm²)
    0.30 - 0.40 0.005 1885 - 2165 2205 - 2525
    0.41 - 0.50 0.008 1860 - 2130 2180 - 2490
    0.51 - 0.65 0.008 1810 - 2070 2130 - 2430
    0.66 - 0.80 0.010 1810 - 2060 2130 - 2430
    0.81 - 1.00 0.010 1780 - 2030 2100 - 2390
    1.01 - 1.25 0.015 1720 - 1960 2040 - 2310
    1.26 - 1.50 0.015 1670 - 1910 1990 - 2260
    1.51 - 1.75 0.015 1610 - 1850 1910 - 2180
    1.76 - 2.00 0.015 1570 - 1800 1900 - 2160
    2.01 - 2.50 0.015 1540 - 1770 1860 - 2120
    2.51 - 3.00 0.020 1500 - 1710 1820 - 2060
    3.01 - 3.50 0.020 1400 - 1600 1660 - 1940
    3.51 - 4.25 0.020 1350 - 1550 1620 - 1920
    4.26 - 5.00 0.025 1310 - 1500 1580 - 1800
    5.01 - 5.60 0.025 1300 - 1490 1550 - 1790

    Surface conditions

    Surface performance
    AC-surface 0.30–5.60 mm Ø. The AC-coating can be removed before heat treatment by using a 10-20% nitric acid pickle at room temperature.

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – non-destructive testing
    In the standard size range 2.00-5,60 mm the wire can be tested continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level of >40 microns.

    Physical properties



    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 190 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 200 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 78 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.
    Density: 7.90 kg/dm3.

    kN/mm²

    Heat conductivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 300
    W/(m* oC) 15.0 15.5 19.0

    Linear expansion

    Pro oC 30-100 30-200 30-300
    x10-6 13.0 13.5 14.0

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    Normal procedure for precipitation hardening is heat treatment at 480oC (896oF) for 1 hour and then air cooling. This should be done as soon as possible after spring coiling. The tensile strength of the wire before and after this treatment is given in the table in previous page.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.
    Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4568, AISI/SAE 631, JIS SUS 631

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ASTM A313, AMS 5678, BS 2056 301 S81, JIS G4314

  3. GARBA 177 Supreme
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBA 177 Supreme

    Precipitation hardenable stainless spring wire. Shaved and EC-tested*. For applications demanding superior fatigue properties

    GARBA 177 Supreme® is a semi-austenitic precipitation-hardenable stain¬less steel, processed by ESR (Electro Slag Refining), which reduces the risk of harmful inclusions. The ESR process together with a shaved surface improves the fatigue resistance as compared to GARBA 177PH.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%) Al (%)
    0.09 0.70 1.00 0.040 0.015 16.00 - 18.00 6.50 - 7.80 0.70 - 1.50

    Cleanliness in steel

    The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is
    inspected for every heat in accordance with the Suzuki
    Garphyttan method by the steel supplier.

    For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm down to 1 mm below surface. Inspection area: 350 mm2.

    Inclusion size, surface 5–10 > 10–15 >15 µm
    Max. number of inclusions Max grade D3
    acc. to JK scale*
    20  0

    * Method for assessment of the content of non-metallic inclusions. Swedish Standard SS 111116 – Microscopic methods – Jernkontoret’s inclusion chart II for the assessment of non-metallic inclusions.

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Tensile strength after heat treatment 480C 1h (N/mm²)
    0.30 - 0.40 0.005 1885 - 2165 2205 - 2525
    0.41 - 0.50 0.008 1860 - 2130 2180 - 2490
    0.51 - 0.65 0.008 1810 - 2070 2130 - 2430
    0.66 - 0.80 0.010 1810 - 2060 2130 - 2430
    0.81 - 1.00 0.010 1780 - 2030 2100 - 2390
    1.01 - 1.25 0.015 1720 - 1960 2040 - 2310
    1.26 - 1.50 0.015 1670 - 1910 1990 - 2260
    1.51 - 1.75 0.015 1610 - 1850 1910 - 2180
    1.76 - 2.00 0.015 1570 - 1800 1900 - 2160
    2.01 - 2.50 0.015 1540 - 1770 1860 - 2120
    2.51 - 3.00 0.020 1500 - 1710 1820 - 2060
    3.01 - 3.50 0.020 1400 - 1600 1660 - 1940
    3.51 - 4.25 0.020 1350 - 1550 1620 - 1920
    4.26 - 5.00 0.025 1310 - 1500 1580 - 1800
    5.01 - 5.60 0.025 1300 - 1490 1550 - 1790

    Surface conditions

    Surface performance
    AC-surface 0.30–5.60 mm Ø . The AC-coating can be removed before heat treatment by using a 10-20% nitric acid pickle at room temperature.

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – non-destructive testing
    In the standard size range 2.00-5,60 mm the wire can be tested continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level of >40 microns.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 190 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 200 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 78 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.
    Density: 7.90 kg/dm3.

    kN/mm²

    Heat conductivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 300
    W/(m* oC) 15.0 15.5 19.0

    Resistivity

    Temperature ºC 20    100 200 300
    nΩm  900   950   1000 1050

    Linear expansion

    Pro oC 30-100 30-200 30-300
    x10-6 13.0 13.5 14.0

    Specific heat capactity

    Temperature oC 100 200
    J/(kg* oC) 480 520

    Recommendations

    Electro slag refining (ESR) process
    For applications demanding superior fatigue properties


    Electro Slag Refining (ESR) process
    ESR process, see figure 1.
    The ESR process gives a material with lower level of inclusions compared to a material not processed with ESR and in addition also a better segregation level.
    Material properties achieved by ESR in combination with shaved wire surface and precipitation hardening result in superior fatigue resistance.

    Shaved and Eddy Current tested

    Suzuki Garphyttan uses the most advanced Eddy Current testing equip¬ment available on the market. Experience from many years of surface testing in efficient continuous testing lines is a guarantee for high quality spring wire.

    Eddy Current testing is carried out on material with high demands on surface quality. EC-testing is performed with both rotating (R) and stationary (D) probe test equipment.

     Steel grade  Dimension, mm  ESR Shaved   Unshaved  RD40
     GARBA 177 Supreme®  0.30 – 1.99  x  -  -
     GARBA 177 Supreme®  2.00 – 5.60  x  x  -


    Steel grade Dimension, mm ESR Shaved Unshaved RD40
    GARBA 177 Supreme® 0.30 – 1.99 X X – –
    GARBA 177 Supreme® 2.00 – 5.60 X X – X

    Heat treatment

    Normal procedure for precipitation hardening is heat treatment at 480oC (896oF) for 1 hour and then air cooling. This should be done as soon as possible after spring coiling. The tensile strength of the wire before and after this treatment is given in the table in previous page.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.
    Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Relaxation And Fatigue Properties

    In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of GARBA 177 Supreme® is illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test spring design.

    Diagram 2-3 show the relaxation properties (loss of load) of springs made from GARBA 177 Supreme® subjected to three different stress levels at different temperatures.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4568, AISI/SAE 631, JIS SUS 631

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ASTM A313, AMS 5678, BS 2056 301 S81, JIS G4314

  4. GARBA 178Mo
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBA 178Mo

    Stainless spring wire. Similar to EN 1.4310 with increased tensile strength

    GARBA 178Mo is a general-purpose austenitic stainless steel that is used for springs and other components requiring good fatigue resistance and good resistance against atmospheric corrosion. Addition of molybdenum increases the tensile strength as compared to GARBA 188 and also increases the resistance against localised and general corrosion.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%) Mo (%)
    0.05 - 0.15 2.00 2.00 0.045 0.015 16.00 - 19.00 6.00 - 9.50 0.80

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²)
    0.30 - 0.65 0.008 -
    0.66 - 1.01 0.010 -
    1.02 - 2.26 0.015 -
    2.27 - 4.01 0.020 -
    4.02 - 6.26 0.025 -
    6.27 - 8.00 0.030 -
    0.30 - 0.40 2250 - 2590
    0.41 - 0.50 2200 - 2530
    0.51 - 0.65 2150 - 2470
    0.66 - 0.80 2100 - 2420
    0.81 - 1.00 2050 - 2360
    1.01 - 1.25 2000 - 2300
    1.26 - 1.50 1950 - 2240
    1.51 - 1.75 1900 - 2190
    1.76 - 2.00 1850 - 2130
    2.01 - 2.50 1750 - 2010
    2.51 - 3.00 1700 - 1960
    3.01 - 3.50 1650 - 1900
    3.51 - 4.25 1600 - 1840
    4.26 - 5.00 1550 - 1780
    5.01 - 6.00 1500 - 1730
    6.01 - 7.00 1450 - 1670
    7.01 - 8.00 1400 - 1610

    Surface conditions

    Surface performance
    AC-surface 0.30–8.00 mm Ø. The AC-coating can be removed before heat treatment by using a 10-20% nitric acid pickle at room temperature.

     

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 180 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 185 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 70 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    Heat conductivity

    Temperature °C 20 100 200 400
    W/(m* °C) 15.0 16.0 18.0 20.0

    Resistivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 300
    nΩm 700 750 800 950

    Linear expansion

    Pro °C 30–100 30–200 30–400
    x10 –6 17.0 17.5 18.5

    Specific heat capactity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 400
    J/(kg* oC) 440 480 520 560

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.
    Recommended temperature for compression springs or tension springs without initial tension is approx. 420 ºC for 0.5 - 4 hours.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4310, AISI/SAE 302

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ASTM A313, BS 2056 302 S26

  5. GARBA 1812Mo
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBA 1812Mo

    Stainless spring wire

    GARBA 1812Mo is an austenitic stainless steel, which as compared to GARBA 178Mo offers a higher resistance against intergranular corrosion due to lower carbon content. The higher content of molybdenum also increases the resistance against general corrosion.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%) Mo (%)
    0.07 1.00 2.00 0.045 0.015 16.50 - 18.50 10.00 - 13.00 2.00 - 3.00

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²)
    0.30 - 0.65 0.008 -
    0.66 - 1.01 0.010 -
    1.02 - 2.26 0.015 -
    2.27 - 4.01 0.020 -
    4.02 - 6.26 0.025 -
    6.27 - 8.00 0.030 -
    0.30 - 0.40 1675 - 1930
    0.41 - 0.50 1650 - 1900
    0.51 - 0.65 1625 - 1870
    0.66 - 0.80 1600 - 1840
    0.81 - 1.00 1575 - 1810
    1.01 - 1.25 1550 - 1780
    1.26 - 1.50 1500 - 1730
    1.51 - 1.75 1450 - 1670
    1.76 - 2.00 1400 - 1610
    2.01 - 2.50 1350 - 1550
    2.51 - 3.00 1300 - 1500
    3.01 - 3.50 1250 - 1440
    3.51 - 4.25 1225 - 1410
    4.26 - 5.00 1200 - 1380
    5.01 - 6.00 1150 - 1320
    6.01 - 7.00 1125 - 1290
    7.01 - 8.00 1075 - 1240

    Surface conditions

    Surface performance
    AC-surface 0.30–8.00 mm Ø. The AC-coating can be removed before heat treatment by using a 10-20% nitric acid pickle at room temperature.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 175 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 180 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 68 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 71 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.
    Density: 8.00 kg/dm3.

    kN/mm²

    Heat conductivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 400
    W/(m*oC) 13.5 14.5 15.5 18.5

    Resistivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 400
    nΩm 750 800 850 1000

    Linear expansion

    Pro oC 30-100 30-200 30-400
    x10-6 16.5 17.0 18.0

    Specific heat capactity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 400
    J/(kg*oC) 440 480 520 560

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.
    Recommended temperature for compression springs or tension springs without initial tension is approx. 420 ºC for 0.5 - 4 hours.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4401, AISI/SAE 316, JIS SUS 316

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ASTM A313, BS 2056 316 S42, JIS G4314

  6. GARBA 188
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBA 188

    Stainless spring wire

    GARBA 188 is a general-purpose austenitic stainless steel, which is used for springs and other components requiring good fatigue resistance. The formability is excellent and the corrosion resistance is good against atmospheric corrosion

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%)
    0.05 - 0.15 2.00 2.00 0.045 0.015 16.00 - 19.00 6.00 - 9.50

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²)
    0.30 - 0.65 0.008 -
    0.66 - 1.01 0.010 -
    1.02 - 2.26 0.015 -
    2.27 - 4.01 0.020 -
    4.02 - 6.26 0.025 -
    6.27 - 8.00 0.030 -
    0.30 - 0.30 2150 - 2470
    0.31 - 0.40 2100 - 2420
    0.41 - 0.50 2050 - 2360
    0.51 - 0.65 2000 - 2300
    0.66 - 0.80 1950 - 2240
    0.81 - 1.00 1900 - 2190
    1.01 - 1.25 1850 - 2130
    1.26 - 1.50 1800 - 2070
    1.51 - 1.75 1750 - 2010
    1.76 - 2.00 1700 - 1960
    2.01 - 2.50 1650 - 1900
    2.51 - 3.00 1600 - 1840
    3.01 - 3.50 1550 - 1780
    3.51 - 4.25 1500 - 1730
    4.26 - 5.00 1450 - 1670
    5.01 - 6.00 1400 - 1610
    6.01 - 7.00 1350 - 1550
    7.01 - 8.00 1300 - 1500

    Surface conditions

    Surface performance
    AC-surface 0.30–8.00 mm Ø. The AC-coating can be removed before heat treatment by using a 10-20% nitric acid pickle at room temperature.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 180 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 185 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 70 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.
    Density: 7.90 kg/dm3.

    kN/mm²

    Heat conductivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 400
    W/(m* oC) 15.0 15.5 17.5 20.0

    Resistivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 300
    nΩm 700 750 800 950

    Linear expansion

    Pro oC 30-100 30-200 30-300
    x10-6 17.0 17.5 18.5

    Specific heat capactity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 400
    J/(kg* oC) 440 480 520 560

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.
    Recommended temperature for compression springs or tension springs without initial tension is approx. 350ºC for 0.5 - 3 hours.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4310, AISI/SAE 302, JIS SUS 302

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ASTM A313, AMS 5688, BS 2056 302 S26, JIS G4314

  7. GARBA 188L
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBA 188L

    Stainless spring wire

    GARBA 188 is a general-purpose austenitic stainless steel, which is used for springs and other components requiring good fatigue resistance. GARBA 188L has a higher formability as compared to GARBA 188 due to its lower carbon content.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%)
    0.08 1.00 2.00 0.040 0.015 18.00 - 20.00 8.50 - 10.00

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²)
    0.30 - 0.50 0.005 -
    0.51 - 0.70 0.008 -
    0.71 - 0.83 0.009 -
    0.84 - 1.00 0.010 -
    1.01 - 1.60 0.011 -
    1.61 - 2.50 0.014 -
    2.51 - 4.00 0.018 -
    4.01 - 6.30 0.022 -
    6.31 - 8.00 0.028 -
    0.30 - 0.40 1785 - 2000
    0.41 - 0.70 1700 - 1910
    0.71 - 1.00 1650 - 1830
    1.01 - 1.50 1530 - 1740
    1.51 - 2.00 1445 - 1650
    2.01 - 2.80 1360 - 1570
    2.81 - 4.00 1275 - 1490
    4.01 - 6.00 1190 - 1400
    6.01 - 8.00 1105 - 1320

    Surface conditions

    Surface performance
    AC-surface 0.30–8.00 mm Ø. The AC-coating can be removed before heat treatment by using a 10-20% nitric acid pickle at room temperature.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 180 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 185 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 70 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.
    Density: 7.90 kg/dm3.

    kN/mm²

    Heat conductivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 400
    W/(m* oC) 15.0 15.5 17.5 20.0

    Linear expansion

    Pro oC 30-100 30-200 30-300
    x10-6 17.0 17.5 18.5

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.
    Recommended temperature for compression springs or tension springs without initial tension is approx. 350ºC for 0.5 - 3 hours.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4301, AISI/SAE 304, JIS SUS 304

    Standards

    ASTM A313, BS 2056 304 S15, JIS G4314