Technical information

GARBA

  1. GARBA 177 PH
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBA 177 PH

    Precipitation hardenable stainless spring wire.
    For applications demanding medium fatigue properties.

    GARBA 177PH is a semi-austenitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel with high relaxation resistance at elevated temperatures and excellent fatigue properties. This material has good formability and good form stability during the precipitation hardening heat treatment and a moderate level of corrosion resistance.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Al (%) Ni (%)
    0.09 0.70 1.00 0.040 0.015 16.00 - 18.00 0.70 - 1.50 6.50 - 7.80

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Tensile strength after heat treatment 480C 1h (N/mm²)
    0.30 - 0.65 0.005 - -
    0.66 - 1.01 0.008 - -
    1.02 - 2.26 0.012 - -
    2.27 - 4.01 0.015 - -
    4.02 - 6.26 0.020 - -
    6.27 - 8.00 0.025 - -
    0.30 - 0.40 1925 - 2213 2225 - 2525
    0.41 - 0.50 1900 - 2185 2200 - 2500
    0.51 - 0.65 1850 - 2127 2150 - 2450
    0.66 - 0.80 1825 - 2099 2125 - 2425
    0.81 - 1.00 1800 - 2070 2100 - 2400
    1.01 - 1.25 1750 - 2012 2050 - 2350
    1.26 - 1.50 1700 - 1955 2000 - 2300
    1.51 - 1.75 1650 - 1897 1950 - 2250
    1.76 - 2.00 1600 - 1840 1900 - 2200
    2.01 - 2.50 1550 - 1782 1850 - 2150
    2.51 - 3.00 1500 - 1725 1800 - 2100
    3.01 - 3.50 1450 - 1667 1750 - 2050
    3.51 - 4.25 1400 - 1610 1700 - 2000
    4.26 - 5.00 1350 - 1552 1650 - 1950
    5.01 - 6.00 1300 - 1495 1550 - 1850
    6.01 - 8.00 1250 - 1437 1500 - 1800

    Surface conditions

    Surface performance
    AC-surface 0.30–8.00 mm Ø.
    The AC-coating can be removed before heat treatment by using a 10-20% nitric acid pickle at room temperature.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 190 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 200 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 78 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    Heat conductivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 300
    W/(m* oC) 15.0 15.5 19.0

    Resistivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 300
    nΩm 900 950 1000 1050

    Linear expansion

    Pro oC <30-100 30-200 30-300
    x10-6 13.0 13.5 14.0

    Specific heat capactity

    Temperature oC 100 200
    J/(kg* oC) 480 520

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    Normal procedure for precipitation hardening is heat treatment at 480oC (896oF) for 1 hour and then air cooling. This should be done as soon as possible after spring coiling.  The tensile strength of the wire before and after this treatment is given in the table in previous page.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.

    Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Relaxation And Fatigue Properties

    In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of GARBA 177 PH is illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test spring design.

    Diagram 2-3 show the relaxation properties (loss of load) of springs made from GARBA 177PH subjected to three different stress levels at different temperatures.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4568, AISI/SAE 631, JIS SUS 631

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ASTM A313, AMS 5678, BS 2056 301 S81, JIS G4314

  2. GARBA 177 Premium
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBA 177 Premium

    Precipitation hardenable stainless spring wire. Shaved and EC-tested *)
    For applications demanding high fatigue properties

    GARBA 177 Premium is a semi-austenitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel with high relaxation resistance at elevated temperatures and excellent fatigue properties. This material has good formability and good form stability during the precipitation hardening heat treatment and a moderate level of corrosion resistance. The shaved surface improves the fatigue resistance as compared to GARBA 177PH.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%) Al (%)
    0.09 0.70 1.00 0.040 0.015 16.00 - 18.00 6.50 - 7.80 0.70 - 1.50

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Tensile strength after heat treatment 480C 1h (N/mm²)
    0.30 - 0.40 0.005 1885 - 2165 2205 - 2525
    0.41 - 0.50 0.008 1860 - 2130 2180 - 2490
    0.51 - 0.65 0.008 1810 - 2070 2130 - 2430
    0.66 - 0.80 0.010 1810 - 2060 2130 - 2430
    0.81 - 1.00 0.010 1780 - 2030 2100 - 2390
    1.01 - 1.25 0.015 1720 - 1960 2040 - 2310
    1.26 - 1.50 0.015 1670 - 1910 1990 - 2260
    1.51 - 1.75 0.015 1610 - 1850 1910 - 2180
    1.76 - 2.00 0.015 1570 - 1800 1900 - 2160
    2.01 - 2.50 0.015 1540 - 1770 1860 - 2120
    2.51 - 3.00 0.020 1500 - 1710 1820 - 2060
    3.01 - 3.50 0.020 1400 - 1600 1660 - 1940
    3.51 - 4.25 0.020 1350 - 1550 1620 - 1920
    4.26 - 5.00 0.025 1310 - 1500 1580 - 1800
    5.01 - 5.60 0.025 1300 - 1490 1550 - 1790

    Surface conditions

    Surface performance
    AC-surface 0.30–5.60 mm Ø. The AC-coating can be removed before heat treatment by using a 10-20% nitric acid pickle at room temperature.

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – non-destructive testing
    In the standard size range 2.00-5,60 mm the wire can be tested continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level of >40 microns.

    Physical properties



    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 190 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 200 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 78 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.
    Density: 7.90 kg/dm3.

    kN/mm²

    Heat conductivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 300
    W/(m* oC) 15.0 15.5 19.0

    Linear expansion

    Pro oC 30-100 30-200 30-300
    x10-6 13.0 13.5 14.0

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    Normal procedure for precipitation hardening is heat treatment at 480oC (896oF) for 1 hour and then air cooling. This should be done as soon as possible after spring coiling. The tensile strength of the wire before and after this treatment is given in the table in previous page.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.
    Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4568, AISI/SAE 631, JIS SUS 631

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ASTM A313, AMS 5678, BS 2056 301 S81, JIS G4314

  3. GARBA 177 Supreme
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBA 177 Supreme

    Precipitation hardenable stainless spring wire. Shaved and EC-tested*. For applications demanding superior fatigue properties

    GARBA 177 Supreme® is a semi-austenitic precipitation-hardenable stain¬less steel, processed by ESR (Electro Slag Refining), which reduces the risk of harmful inclusions. The ESR process together with a shaved surface improves the fatigue resistance as compared to GARBA 177PH.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%) Al (%)
    0.09 0.70 1.00 0.040 0.015 16.00 - 18.00 6.50 - 7.80 0.70 - 1.50

    Cleanliness in steel

    The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is
    inspected for every heat in accordance with the Suzuki
    Garphyttan method by the steel supplier.

    For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm down to 1 mm below surface. Inspection area: 350 mm2.

    Inclusion size, surface 5–10 > 10–15 >15 µm
    Max. number of inclusions Max grade D3
    acc. to JK scale*
    20  0

    * Method for assessment of the content of non-metallic inclusions. Swedish Standard SS 111116 – Microscopic methods – Jernkontoret’s inclusion chart II for the assessment of non-metallic inclusions.

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Tensile strength after heat treatment 480C 1h (N/mm²)
    0.30 - 0.40 0.005 1885 - 2165 2205 - 2525
    0.41 - 0.50 0.008 1860 - 2130 2180 - 2490
    0.51 - 0.65 0.008 1810 - 2070 2130 - 2430
    0.66 - 0.80 0.010 1810 - 2060 2130 - 2430
    0.81 - 1.00 0.010 1780 - 2030 2100 - 2390
    1.01 - 1.25 0.015 1720 - 1960 2040 - 2310
    1.26 - 1.50 0.015 1670 - 1910 1990 - 2260
    1.51 - 1.75 0.015 1610 - 1850 1910 - 2180
    1.76 - 2.00 0.015 1570 - 1800 1900 - 2160
    2.01 - 2.50 0.015 1540 - 1770 1860 - 2120
    2.51 - 3.00 0.020 1500 - 1710 1820 - 2060
    3.01 - 3.50 0.020 1400 - 1600 1660 - 1940
    3.51 - 4.25 0.020 1350 - 1550 1620 - 1920
    4.26 - 5.00 0.025 1310 - 1500 1580 - 1800
    5.01 - 5.60 0.025 1300 - 1490 1550 - 1790

    Surface conditions

    Surface performance
    AC-surface 0.30–5.60 mm Ø . The AC-coating can be removed before heat treatment by using a 10-20% nitric acid pickle at room temperature.

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – non-destructive testing
    In the standard size range 2.00-5,60 mm the wire can be tested continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level of >40 microns.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 190 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 200 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 78 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.
    Density: 7.90 kg/dm3.

    kN/mm²

    Heat conductivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 300
    W/(m* oC) 15.0 15.5 19.0

    Resistivity

    Temperature ºC 20    100 200 300
    nΩm  900   950   1000 1050

    Linear expansion

    Pro oC 30-100 30-200 30-300
    x10-6 13.0 13.5 14.0

    Specific heat capactity

    Temperature oC 100 200
    J/(kg* oC) 480 520

    Recommendations

    Electro slag refining (ESR) process
    For applications demanding superior fatigue properties


    Electro Slag Refining (ESR) process
    ESR process, see figure 1.
    The ESR process gives a material with lower level of inclusions compared to a material not processed with ESR and in addition also a better segregation level.
    Material properties achieved by ESR in combination with shaved wire surface and precipitation hardening result in superior fatigue resistance.

    Shaved and Eddy Current tested

    Suzuki Garphyttan uses the most advanced Eddy Current testing equip¬ment available on the market. Experience from many years of surface testing in efficient continuous testing lines is a guarantee for high quality spring wire.

    Eddy Current testing is carried out on material with high demands on surface quality. EC-testing is performed with both rotating (R) and stationary (D) probe test equipment.

     Steel grade  Dimension, mm  ESR Shaved   Unshaved  RD40
     GARBA 177 Supreme®  0.30 – 1.99  x  -  -
     GARBA 177 Supreme®  2.00 – 5.60  x  x  -


    Steel grade Dimension, mm ESR Shaved Unshaved RD40
    GARBA 177 Supreme® 0.30 – 1.99 X X – –
    GARBA 177 Supreme® 2.00 – 5.60 X X – X

    Heat treatment

    Normal procedure for precipitation hardening is heat treatment at 480oC (896oF) for 1 hour and then air cooling. This should be done as soon as possible after spring coiling. The tensile strength of the wire before and after this treatment is given in the table in previous page.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.
    Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Relaxation And Fatigue Properties

    In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of GARBA 177 Supreme® is illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test spring design.

    Diagram 2-3 show the relaxation properties (loss of load) of springs made from GARBA 177 Supreme® subjected to three different stress levels at different temperatures.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4568, AISI/SAE 631, JIS SUS 631

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ASTM A313, AMS 5678, BS 2056 301 S81, JIS G4314

  4. GARBA 178Mo
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBA 178Mo

    Stainless spring wire. Similar to EN 1.4310 with increased tensile strength

    GARBA 178Mo is a general-purpose austenitic stainless steel that is used for springs and other components requiring good fatigue resistance and good resistance against atmospheric corrosion. Addition of molybdenum increases the tensile strength as compared to GARBA 188 and also increases the resistance against localised and general corrosion.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%) Mo (%)
    0.05 - 0.15 2.00 2.00 0.045 0.015 16.00 - 19.00 6.00 - 9.50 0.80

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²)
    0.30 - 0.65 0.008 -
    0.66 - 1.01 0.010 -
    1.02 - 2.26 0.015 -
    2.27 - 4.01 0.020 -
    4.02 - 6.26 0.025 -
    6.27 - 8.00 0.030 -
    0.30 - 0.40 2250 - 2590
    0.41 - 0.50 2200 - 2530
    0.51 - 0.65 2150 - 2470
    0.66 - 0.80 2100 - 2420
    0.81 - 1.00 2050 - 2360
    1.01 - 1.25 2000 - 2300
    1.26 - 1.50 1950 - 2240
    1.51 - 1.75 1900 - 2190
    1.76 - 2.00 1850 - 2130
    2.01 - 2.50 1750 - 2010
    2.51 - 3.00 1700 - 1960
    3.01 - 3.50 1650 - 1900
    3.51 - 4.25 1600 - 1840
    4.26 - 5.00 1550 - 1780
    5.01 - 6.00 1500 - 1730
    6.01 - 7.00 1450 - 1670
    7.01 - 8.00 1400 - 1610

    Surface conditions

    Surface performance
    AC-surface 0.30–8.00 mm Ø. The AC-coating can be removed before heat treatment by using a 10-20% nitric acid pickle at room temperature.

     

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 180 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 185 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 70 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    Heat conductivity

    Temperature °C 20 100 200 400
    W/(m* °C) 15.0 16.0 18.0 20.0

    Resistivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 300
    nΩm 700 750 800 950

    Linear expansion

    Pro °C 30–100 30–200 30–400
    x10 –6 17.0 17.5 18.5

    Specific heat capactity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 400
    J/(kg* oC) 440 480 520 560

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.
    Recommended temperature for compression springs or tension springs without initial tension is approx. 420 ºC for 0.5 - 4 hours.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4310, AISI/SAE 302

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ASTM A313, BS 2056 302 S26

  5. GARBA 1812Mo
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBA 1812Mo

    Stainless spring wire

    GARBA 1812Mo is an austenitic stainless steel, which as compared to GARBA 178Mo offers a higher resistance against intergranular corrosion due to lower carbon content. The higher content of molybdenum also increases the resistance against general corrosion.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%) Mo (%)
    0.07 1.00 2.00 0.045 0.015 16.50 - 18.50 10.00 - 13.00 2.00 - 3.00

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²)
    0.30 - 0.65 0.008 -
    0.66 - 1.01 0.010 -
    1.02 - 2.26 0.015 -
    2.27 - 4.01 0.020 -
    4.02 - 6.26 0.025 -
    6.27 - 8.00 0.030 -
    0.30 - 0.40 1675 - 1930
    0.41 - 0.50 1650 - 1900
    0.51 - 0.65 1625 - 1870
    0.66 - 0.80 1600 - 1840
    0.81 - 1.00 1575 - 1810
    1.01 - 1.25 1550 - 1780
    1.26 - 1.50 1500 - 1730
    1.51 - 1.75 1450 - 1670
    1.76 - 2.00 1400 - 1610
    2.01 - 2.50 1350 - 1550
    2.51 - 3.00 1300 - 1500
    3.01 - 3.50 1250 - 1440
    3.51 - 4.25 1225 - 1410
    4.26 - 5.00 1200 - 1380
    5.01 - 6.00 1150 - 1320
    6.01 - 7.00 1125 - 1290
    7.01 - 8.00 1075 - 1240

    Surface conditions

    Surface performance
    AC-surface 0.30–8.00 mm Ø. The AC-coating can be removed before heat treatment by using a 10-20% nitric acid pickle at room temperature.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 175 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 180 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 68 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 71 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.
    Density: 8.00 kg/dm3.

    kN/mm²

    Heat conductivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 400
    W/(m*oC) 13.5 14.5 15.5 18.5

    Resistivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 400
    nΩm 750 800 850 1000

    Linear expansion

    Pro oC 30-100 30-200 30-400
    x10-6 16.5 17.0 18.0

    Specific heat capactity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 400
    J/(kg*oC) 440 480 520 560

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.
    Recommended temperature for compression springs or tension springs without initial tension is approx. 420 ºC for 0.5 - 4 hours.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4401, AISI/SAE 316, JIS SUS 316

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ASTM A313, BS 2056 316 S42, JIS G4314

  6. GARBA 188
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBA 188

    Stainless spring wire

    GARBA 188 is a general-purpose austenitic stainless steel, which is used for springs and other components requiring good fatigue resistance. The formability is excellent and the corrosion resistance is good against atmospheric corrosion

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%)
    0.05 - 0.15 2.00 2.00 0.045 0.015 16.00 - 19.00 6.00 - 9.50

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²)
    0.30 - 0.65 0.008 -
    0.66 - 1.01 0.010 -
    1.02 - 2.26 0.015 -
    2.27 - 4.01 0.020 -
    4.02 - 6.26 0.025 -
    6.27 - 8.00 0.030 -
    0.30 - 0.30 2150 - 2470
    0.31 - 0.40 2100 - 2420
    0.41 - 0.50 2050 - 2360
    0.51 - 0.65 2000 - 2300
    0.66 - 0.80 1950 - 2240
    0.81 - 1.00 1900 - 2190
    1.01 - 1.25 1850 - 2130
    1.26 - 1.50 1800 - 2070
    1.51 - 1.75 1750 - 2010
    1.76 - 2.00 1700 - 1960
    2.01 - 2.50 1650 - 1900
    2.51 - 3.00 1600 - 1840
    3.01 - 3.50 1550 - 1780
    3.51 - 4.25 1500 - 1730
    4.26 - 5.00 1450 - 1670
    5.01 - 6.00 1400 - 1610
    6.01 - 7.00 1350 - 1550
    7.01 - 8.00 1300 - 1500

    Surface conditions

    Surface performance
    AC-surface 0.30–8.00 mm Ø. The AC-coating can be removed before heat treatment by using a 10-20% nitric acid pickle at room temperature.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 180 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 185 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 70 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.
    Density: 7.90 kg/dm3.

    kN/mm²

    Heat conductivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 400
    W/(m* oC) 15.0 15.5 17.5 20.0

    Resistivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 300
    nΩm 700 750 800 950

    Linear expansion

    Pro oC 30-100 30-200 30-300
    x10-6 17.0 17.5 18.5

    Specific heat capactity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 400
    J/(kg* oC) 440 480 520 560

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.
    Recommended temperature for compression springs or tension springs without initial tension is approx. 350ºC for 0.5 - 3 hours.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4310, AISI/SAE 302, JIS SUS 302

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ASTM A313, AMS 5688, BS 2056 302 S26, JIS G4314

  7. GARBA 188L
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBA 188L

    Stainless spring wire

    GARBA 188 is a general-purpose austenitic stainless steel, which is used for springs and other components requiring good fatigue resistance. GARBA 188L has a higher formability as compared to GARBA 188 due to its lower carbon content.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%)
    0.08 1.00 2.00 0.040 0.015 18.00 - 20.00 8.50 - 10.00

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²)
    0.30 - 0.50 0.005 -
    0.51 - 0.70 0.008 -
    0.71 - 0.83 0.009 -
    0.84 - 1.00 0.010 -
    1.01 - 1.60 0.011 -
    1.61 - 2.50 0.014 -
    2.51 - 4.00 0.018 -
    4.01 - 6.30 0.022 -
    6.31 - 8.00 0.028 -
    0.30 - 0.40 1785 - 2000
    0.41 - 0.70 1700 - 1910
    0.71 - 1.00 1650 - 1830
    1.01 - 1.50 1530 - 1740
    1.51 - 2.00 1445 - 1650
    2.01 - 2.80 1360 - 1570
    2.81 - 4.00 1275 - 1490
    4.01 - 6.00 1190 - 1400
    6.01 - 8.00 1105 - 1320

    Surface conditions

    Surface performance
    AC-surface 0.30–8.00 mm Ø. The AC-coating can be removed before heat treatment by using a 10-20% nitric acid pickle at room temperature.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 180 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 185 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 70 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.
    Density: 7.90 kg/dm3.

    kN/mm²

    Heat conductivity

    Temperature oC 20 100 200 400
    W/(m* oC) 15.0 15.5 17.5 20.0

    Linear expansion

    Pro oC 30-100 30-200 30-300
    x10-6 17.0 17.5 18.5

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.
    Recommended temperature for compression springs or tension springs without initial tension is approx. 350ºC for 0.5 - 3 hours.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4301, AISI/SAE 304, JIS SUS 304

    Standards

    ASTM A313, BS 2056 304 S15, JIS G4314

GARBAFLEX

  1. GARBAFLEX 11R51
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBAFLEX 11R51

    Flat and shaped wire

    GARBAFLEX 11R51 is an austenitic stainless steel wire alloyed with molybdenum, supplied in the cold rolled or annealed condition.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%) Mo (%)
    0.07 - 0.09 1.20 - 1.80 1.50 - 2.00 0.025 0.010 16.00 - 18.00 7.00 - 8.50 0.50 - 0.80

    Mechanical properties

    Tensile strength
    As cold rolled max. 2400 N/mm2.
    As annealed max. 850 N/mm2.

    For flat rolled wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    1.00 - 5.00 0.050
    5.01 - 8.00 0.070
    8.01 - 10.00 0.100
    Thickness (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    0.30 - 0.80 0.015
    0.81 - 1.00 0.019
    1.01 - 1.60 0.025

    For shaped wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    - 1.50 0.020
    1.51 - 3.00 0.030
    3.01 - 5.00 0.040
    5.01 - 7.00 0.050
    7.01 - 0.060

    Elongation

    As annealed min. 40%.

    Microstructure

    Austenite.

    Execution

    Rolled on 2 sides (flat).
    Rolled on 4 sides (shaped).

    Camber

    Max. 3 mm measured on 1 m length.

    Surface conditions

    Surface

    Bright. Surface defects max. 1% of thickness.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 180 kN/mmin drawn condition.
    Abt. 185 kN/mmafter heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 70 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.
    Density: 7.90 kg/dm3.

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Additional

    Additional information

    Delivery form
    On wooden spools, max. 250 kg.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4310, AISI/SAE 302, JIS SUS 302

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ISO 6931-1, ASTM A313

  2. GARBAFLEX 174Mn
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBAFLEX 174Mn

    Flat and shaped wire

    GARBAFLEX 174Mn is an austenitic stainless wire, supplied in the cold rolled or annealed condition.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%)
    0.15 1.00 5.50 - 7.50 0.045 0.030 16.00 - 18.00 3.50 - 5.50

    Mechanical properties

    Tensile strength
    As cold rolled max. 1900 N/mm2.
    As annealed max. 950 N/mm2.

    Yield strength
    As annealed 300-450 N/mm2.

    For flat rolled wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    2.00 - 5.00 0.050
    5.01 - 8.00 0.070
    8.01 - 10.00 0.100
    Thickness (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    0.30 - 0.80 0.015
    0.81 - 1.00 0.019
    1.01 - 1.60 0.025

    For shaped wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    - 1.50 0.020
    1.51 - 3.00 0.030
    3.01 - 5.00 0.040
    5.01 - 7.00 0.050
    7.00 - 0.060

    Elongation

    As annealed min. 40%.

    Microstructure

    Austenite.

    Camber

    Max. 5 mm measured on 1 m length.

    Surface conditions

    Surface

    Bright. Surface defects max. 1% of thickness.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 180 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 185 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 70 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.
    Density: 7.90 kg/dm3.

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Additional

    Additional information

    Delivery form
    On wooden spools. Max. 250 kg.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4371, AISI/SAE 201, JIS SUS 201

    Standards

    JIS G4309

  3. GARBAFLEX 177 PH
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBAFLEX 177 PH

    Flat and shaped wire

    GARBAFLEX 177PH is a precipitation hardenable stainless wire for flat and shaped wire applications in corrosive atmos-phere and elevated working temperature.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%) Al (%)
    0.09 0.70 1.00 0.025 0.015 16.00 - 18.00 6.50 - 7.80 0.70 - 1.50

    Mechanical properties

    For flat rolled wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    1.00 - 5.00 0.050
    5.01 - 8.00 0.070
    8.01 - 10.00 0.100
    Thickness (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    0.30 - 0.80 0.013
    0.81 - 1.00 0.019
    1.01 - 1.60 0.025
    1.61 - 2.30 0.050

    For shaped wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    - 1.50 0.020
    1.51 - 3.00 0.030
    3.01 - 5.00 0.040
    5.01 - 7.00 0.050
    7.00 - 0.060

    Execution

    Rolled on 2 sides (flat).
    Rolled on 4 sides (shaped).

    Surface conditions

    Surface

    Bright. Surface defects max. 1% of thickness.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 180 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 185 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 70 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.
    Density: 7.90 kg/dm3.

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    For best spring properties the springs are heat treated at a temperature of 480 ºC (896 ºF) for 1 hour and then air cooled. The tensile strength of the wire before and after this treatment is given in the table for steel grade GARBA 177PH.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4568, AISI/SAE 631, JIS SUS 631

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ASTM A313, AMS 5678 F, JIS G4314

  4. GARBAFLEX 188
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBAFLEX 188

    Flat and shaped wire

    GARBAFLEX 188 is an austenitic stainless wire, supplied in the cold rolled or annealed condition.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%)
    0.08 2.00 2.00 0.045 0.015 16.00 - 19.00 6.00 - 9.50

    Mechanical properties

    Tensile strength
    As cold rolled max. 1850 N/mm2.
    As annealed max. 850 N/mm2.

    For flat rolled wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    2.00 - 5.00 0.050
    5.01 - 8.00 0.070
    8.01 - 10.00 0.100
    Thickness (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    0.20 - 0.80 0.015
    0.81 - 1.00 0.019
    1.01 - 1.60 0.025

    For shaped wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    - 1.50 0.020
    1.51 - 3.00 0.030
    3.01 - 5.00 0.040
    5.01 - 7.00 0.050
    7.00 - 0.060

    Elongation

    Min. 40%.

    Microstructure

    Austenite.

    Execution

    Rolled on 2 sides (flat).
    Rolled on 4 sides (shaped).

    Camber

    Max. 5 mm measured on 1 m length.

    Coil set

    Max. 20 mm measured on 1 m length.

    Surface conditions

    Bright. Surface defects max. 1% of thickness.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 180 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 185 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 70 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.
    Density: 7.90 kg/dm3.

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4310, AISI/SAE 302, JIS SUS 302

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ASTM A313, AMS 5688, BS 2056 302 S25, JIS G4314

  5. GARBAFLEX 188L
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBAFLEX 188L

    Flat and shaped wire

    GARBAFLEX 188L is an austenitic stainless wire, supplied in the cold rolled or annealed condition.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) Ni (%)
    0.09 1.00 2.00 0.040 0.015 18.00 - 20.00 8.50 - 10.00

    Mechanical properties

    Tensile strength
    As cold rolled max. 1850 N/mm2.
    As annealed max. 850 N/mm2.

    For flat rolled wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    2.00 - 5.00 0.050
    5.01 - 8.00 0.070
    8.01 - 10.00 0.100
    Thickness (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    0.20 - 0.80 0.015
    0.81 - 1.00 0.019
    1.01 - 1.60 0.025

    For shaped wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    - 1.50 0.020
    1.51 - 3.00 0.030
    3.01 - 5.00 0.040
    5.01 - 7.00 0.050
    7.00 - 0.060

    Elongation

    Min. 40%.

    Microstructure

    Austenite.

    Execution

    Rolled on 2 sides (flat).
    Rolled on 4 sides (shaped).

    Camber

    Max. 5 mm measured on 1 m length.

    Coil set

    Max. 20 mm measured on 1 m length.

    Surface conditions

    Bright. Surface defects max. 1% of thickness.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    Abt. 180 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 185 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    Abt. 70 kN/mm2 in drawn condition.
    Abt. 73 kN/mm2 after heat treatment.
    Density: 7.90 kg/dm3.

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1.4301, AISI/SAE 304, JIS SUS 304

    Standards

    EN 10270-3, ASTM A313, BS 2056 304 S15, JIS G4314

  6. GARBAFLEX 75
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBAFLEX 75

    Flat and shaped wire

    GARBAFLEX 75 has a uniform microstructure of tempered martensite. A special heat treatment process has made it possible to produce a material sufficiently ductile for coiling on edge without fracture.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) Cr (%) P max. (%) S max. (%)
    0.60 - 0.80 0.10 - 0.30 0.55 - 0.90 0.20 0.035 0.035

    Mechanical properties

    For flat rolled wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    1.00 - 5.00 0.050
    5.01 - 8.01 0.070
    8.01 - 10.00 0.100
    Thickness (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Hardness
    0.30 - 0.80 0.013 1720 - 1860 69 - 72 HR30N
    0.81 - 1.00 0.019 1720 - 1860 69 - 72 HR30N
    1.01 - 1.60 0.025 1480 - 1625 46 - 49 HRC
    1.61 - 2.30 0.050 1480 - 1625 46 - 49 HRC

    For shaped wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    - 1.50 0.020
    1.51 - 3.00 0.030
    3.01 - 5.00 0.040
    5.01 - 7.00 0.050
    7.01 - 0.060

    Microstructure

    Tempered martensite with no ferrite.

    Execution

    Rolled on 2 sides (flat).
    Rolled on 4 sides (shaped).
    Profile drawn.

    Camber

    Max. 4 mm measured on 1 m length.

    Surface conditions

    Surface

    White polished or oxide.
    Surface defects max. 1% of thickness.

    Physical properties

    Density: 7.95 kg/dm3.

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Additional

    Additional information

    Decarburization
    No total decarburisation. Partial decarburisation (no continuous zones) max. 1.2% of a corresponding round wire dimension.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 1070, AISI/SAE 1070

    Standards

    EN 10270-1

  7. GARBAFLEX 85
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBAFLEX 85

    Flat wire

    This propriety steel grade has high carbon content. It is especially intended for applications where high tensile strength is demanded.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%)
    0.80 - 0.95 0.10 - 0.30 0.30 - 0.60 0.025 0.020

    Mechanical properties

    For flat rolled wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    - 4.00 0.040
    4.01 - 6.00 0.070
    Thickness (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²)
    1.00 - 0.020 1965 -
    1.01 - 1.50 0.030 1900 -

    Yield point

    Yield strength: 80-90% of the tensile strength.

    Elongation

    Min%: 4

    Camber

    Max. 4 mm measured on 1 m length.

    Surface conditions

    Surface

    Bright or oxide.
    Surface defects max 1% of thickness.

    Physical properties

    Density: 7.95 kg/dm3.

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Additional

    Additional information

    Edges
    Natural edges (edge treatment on request).

    Decarburization
    No total decarburisation. Partial decarburisation (no continuous zones)
    max 1.2% of a corresponding round wire dimension.

    Diagram.: Thickness vs. Width

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    JIS 1.1269

    Standards

    EN 10270-1, AMS SA 905

  8. GARBAFLEX CrSi70
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBAFLEX CrSi70

    Flat and shaped wire

    GARBAFLEX CrSi70 is especially intended for application requiring high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at moderately increased working temperatures.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) Cr (%) P max. (%) S max. (%)
    0.50 - 0.60 1.20 - 1.60 0.50 - 0.80 0.50 - 0.80 0.020 0.020

    Mechanical properties

    For flat rolled wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    1.00 - 5.00 0.050
    5.01 - 8.00 0.070
    8.01 - 10.00 0.100
    Thickness (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    0.30 - 0.80 0.013
    0.81 - 1.00 0.019
    1.01 - 1.60 0.025
    1.61 - 2.30 0.050

    For shaped wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    - 1.50 0.020
    1.51 - 3.00 0.030
    3.01 - 5.00 0.040
    5.01 - 7.00 0.050
    7.01 - 0.060

    Microstructure

    Tempered martensite with no ferrite.

    Execution

    Rolled on 2 sides (flat).
    Rolled on 4 sides (shaped).
    Profile drawn (shaped).

    Camber

    Max. 4 mm measured on 1 m length.

    Coil set

    Max. 20 mm measured on 1 m length.

    Surface conditions

    Surface

    Bright or oxide.
    Surface defects max. 1% of thickness.

    Physical properties

    Density: 7.95 kg/dm3.

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Additional

    Additional information

    Decarburization
    No total decarburisation. Partial decarburisation (no continuous zones) max. 1.2% of a corresponding round wire dimension.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 2090, AISI/SAE 2090, JIS 54SiCr6

    Standards

    EN 10270-2, ASTM A401

  9. GARBAFLEX CrSi75
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBAFLEX CrSi75

    Flat and shaped wire

    GARBAFLEX CrSi75 is especially intended for application requiring high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at moderately increased working temperatures.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) Cr (%) V (%) P max. (%) S max. (%)
    0.50 - 0.70 1.20 - 1.65 0.50 - 0.80 0.50 - 1.00 0.05 - 0.20 0.020 0.020

    Mechanical properties

    For flat rolled wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    1.00 - 5.00 0.050
    5.01 - 8.00 0.070
    8.01 - 10.00 0.100
    Thickness (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    0.30 - 0.80 0.013
    0.81 - 1.00 0.019
    1.01 - 1.60 0.025
    1.61 - 2.30 0.050

    For shaped wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    - 1.50 0.020
    1.51 - 3.00 0.030
    3.01 - 5.00 0.040
    5.01 - 7.00 0.050
    7.01 - 0.060

    Microstructure

    Tempered martensite with no ferrite.

    Execution

    Rolled on 2 sides (flat).
    Rolled on 4 sides (shaped).
    Profile drawn (shaped).

    Camber

    Max. 4 mm measured on 1 m length.

    Coil set

    Max. 20 mm measured on 1 m length.

    Surface conditions

    Surface

    Bright or oxide.
    Surface defects max. 1% of thickness.

    Physical properties

    Density: 7.95 kg/dm3.

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Additional

    Additional information

    Decarburization
    No total decarburisation. Partial decarburisation (no continuous zones) max. 1.2% of a corresponding round wire dimension.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 2090, AISI/SAE 2090, JIS 67SiCr5

    Standards

    EN 10270-2

  10. GARBAFLEX CrSi91
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    GARBAFLEX CrSi91

    Flat and shaped wire for surface nitriding

    GARBAFLEX CrSi91 is especially intended for application requiring extremely high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at increased working temperatures.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) Cr (%) V (%) Mo (%) P max. (%) S max. (%)
    0.50 - 0.70 1.80 - 2.20 0.30 - 0.60 0.80 - 1.00 0.05 - 0.15 0.05 - 0.15 0.020 0.020

    Mechanical properties

    For flat rolled wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    1.00 - 5.00 0.050
    5.01 - 8.00 0.070
    8.01 - 10.00 0.100
    Thickness (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    0.30 - 0.80 0.013
    0.81 - 1.00 0.019
    1.01 - 1.60 0.025
    1.61 - 2.30 0.050

    For shaped wire

    Width (mm) Tolerance (± mm)
    - 1.50 0.020
    1.51 - 3.00 0.030
    3.01 - 5.00 0.040
    5.01 - 7.00 0.050
    7.01 - 0.060

    Microstructure

    Tempered martensite with no ferrite.

    Execution

    Rolled on 2 sides (flat).
    Rolled on 4 sides (shaped).
    Profile drawn (shaped).

    Camber

    Max. 4 mm measured on 1 m length.

    Coil set

    Max. 20 mm measured on 1 m length.

    Surface conditions

    Surface

    Bright or oxide.
    Surface defects max. 1% of thickness.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Soft shot peening

    Before the nitriding process a soft shot peening process shall be applied in order to remove the oxide layer on the spring wire surface.

    Nitriding

    GARBAFLEX CrSi91 should be nitrided to obtain optimum fatigue and relaxation properties. Our recommendation is gas nitriding.

    Additional

    Additional information

    Decarburisation
    No total decarburisation. Partial decarburisation (no continuous zones) max. 1.2% of a corresponding round wire dimension.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN/DIN 2090, AISI/SAE 2090, JIS 67SiCr5

KD

  1. 70 KD
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    70 KD

    Oil tempered SiCr-alloyed clutch and transmission spring wire

    70 KD is especially intended for the manufacture of clutch and transmission springs and similar moderately high fatigue stressed springs. 70 KD S is a shaved version of 70 KD intended for applications with higher surface requirements. The material has good relaxation properties. The wire is manufactured in sizes from Ø 0.50 to 7.00 mm. Other wire sizes and shapes on request.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%)
    0.50 - 0.60 1.20 - 1.60 0.50 - 0.80 0.025 0.020 0.50 - 0.80

    Cleanliness in steel

    Non-metallic inclusions:
    Max. level 2 according to DIN 50602-M.
    Corresponding standard: ASTM E-45-A.

    Mechanical properties

    1) Other wire sizes on request.
    2) Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.
    3) Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one coil does not vary more than 60 N/mm2.
    4) Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Torsions (l=300 mm, min. revs) Reduct. of area (min. %)
    0.50 - 0.80 0.010 2080 - 2210 6
    0.81 - 1.30 0.015 2080 - 2210 5 50
    1.31 - 1.40 0.015 2080 - 2210 5 50
    1.41 - 1.60 0.020 2080 - 2210 5 50
    1.61 - 2.00 0.020 2010 - 2160 5 50
    2.01 - 2.50 0.020 1960 - 2060 5 50
    2.51 - 3.00 0.020 1910 - 2010 4 50
    3.01 - 3.20 0.020 1910 - 2010 4 45
    3.21 - 3.50 0.025 1910 - 2010 4 45
    3.51 - 4.50 0.025 1860 - 1960 4 45
    4.51 - 5.00 0.025 1810 - 1910 3 45
    5.01 - 5.60 0.030 1810 - 1910 3 40
    5.61 - 6.00 0.035 1760 - 1860 3 40
    6.01 - 7.00 0.035 1760 - 1860 40

    Yield point

    The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the wire.

    Surface conditions

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – non-destructive testing
    In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested continuously in Eddy Current equipment ; for 70 KD a level of 60 microns and for 70 KD S of 40 microns.

    Surface condition – end sample test
    The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of the material structure. Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization and surface defects, 1.3% x wire diameter. No complete decarburization allowed.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.

    Hot presetting

    After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment. Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN TDSiCr, SIS 142090-05

    Standards

    ASTM A1000 A, BS 2803 685A55ND

  2. 75 KD
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    75 KD

    Oil tempered SiCrV-alloyed clutch and transmission spring wire

    75 KD is especially intended for the manufacture of clutch and transmission springs and similar moderately high fatigue stressed springs.
    75 KD S is a shaved version of 75 KD intended for applications with higher surface requirements.
    The material has good relaxation properties. The wire is manufactured in sizes from Ø 1.60 to 7.00 mm. Other wire sizes and shapes on request.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) V (%)
    0.50 - 0.70 1.20 - 1.65 0.50 - 0.80 0.025 0.020 0.50 - 1.00 0.05 - 0.20

    Cleanliness in steel

    Non-metallic inclusions:
    Max. level 2 according to DIN 50602-M.
    Corresponding standard: ASTM E-45-A.

    Mechanical properties

    1) Other wire sizes on request.
    2) Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.
    3) Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one coil does not vary more than 60 N/mm2.
    4) Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Torsions (l=300 mm, min. revs) Reduct. of area (min. %)
    1.60 - 2.00 0.020 2160 - 2310 5 45
    2.01 - 2.50 0.020 2110 - 2210 5 45
    2.51 - 3.20 0.020 2060 - 2160 4 45
    3.21 - 4.00 0.025 2010 - 2110 4 45
    4.01 - 5.00 0.025 1960 - 2060 4 45
    5.01 - 5.60 0.030 1910 - 2010 4 40
    5.61 - 6.00 0.035 1910 - 2010 3 40
    6.01 - 6.50 0.035 1910 - 2010 40
    6.51 - 7.00 0.035 1860 - 2010 40

    Yield point

    The proof stress Rp0.2is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the wire.

    Surface conditions

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – non-destructive testing
    In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested continuously in Eddy Current equipment; for 75 KD a level of 60 microns and for 75 KD S of 40 microns.
    Surface condition – end sample test
    The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of the material structure.
    Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization and surface defects, 1.3% x wire diameter. No complete decarburization allowed.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.

    Hot presetting

    After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment. Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN TDSiCrV

    Standards

    ASTM A1000 D

  3. 75 KDH
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    75 KDH

    Oil tempered SiCrV-alloyed spring wire

    75 KDH is especially intended for the manufacture of springs exposed to high static loads or low cycle fatigue applications specially intended for trunk opening springs.

    75 KDH is a SiCrV spring steel with elevated tensile strength.

    The material has good relaxation properties. The wire is manufactured in sizes from Ø 2.50 to 5.00 mm. Other wire sizes on request.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) V (%)
    0.50 - 0.70 1.35 - 1.60 0.40 - 0.80 0.025 0.020 0.50 - 0.80 0.05 - 0.20

    Cleanliness in steel

    Non-metallic inclusions:
    Max. level 2 according to DIN 50602-M.
    Corresponding standard: ASTM E-45-A.

    Mechanical properties

    1) Other wire sizes on request.
    2) Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.
    3) Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one coil does not vary more than 60 N/mm2.
    4) Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Torsions (l=300 mm, min. revs) Reduct. of area (min. %)
    2.50 - 3.20 0.020 2240 - 2340 4 40
    3.21 - 3.50 0.025 2240 - 2340 3 40
    3.51 - 4.00 0.025 2220 - 2320 3 40
    4.01 - 4.50 0.025 2220 - 2320 3 38
    4.51 - 5.00 0.030 2200 - 2300 3 38

    Yield point

    The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.87 x tensile strength of the wire.

    Surface conditions

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – end sample test
    The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of the material structure.

    Max. permissible depth  of  partial  surface  decarburization and surface defects,  1.3%  x wire diameter.  No complete decarburization allowed.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.

    Hot presetting

    After shot  peening,  the  springs  should  be  hot  preset  or
    stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relax- ation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment. Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN TDSiCrV

    Standards

    EN 10270-2

OTEVA

  1. OTEVA 101 SC
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    OTEVA 101 SC

    Oil tempered SiCrVMoW-alloyed ultra-high tensile clutch and transmission spring wire for surface nitriding

    OTEVA® 101 SC is a Super Clean steel, especially intended for the manufacture of clutch and transmission springs and other springs requiring high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at increased working temperatures.

    Manufactured as standard in shaved condition in sizes from Ø 2.00 mm to 5.00 mm or in egg or elliptical shape corresponding to round cross section 2.50 mm to 5.00 mm. Other wire sizes on request.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) V (%) Mo (%) W (%)
    0.50 - 0.70 2.10 - 2.40 0.30 - 0.70 0.020 0.030 1.10 - 1.40 0.05 - 0.25 0.05 - 0.25 0.05 - 0.25

    Cleanliness in steel

    The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is inspected for every heat in accordance with the Suzuki Garphyttan method by the steel supplier.

    Before release for production, Suzuki Garphyttan performs non-metallic inclusion inspection for every fifth heat. The criteria for supplier inspection and releasing inspection are the following;

    For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm down to 1 mm below surface. Inspection area 1 000 mm2.  

    Inclusion size, surface 5–10 > 10–15 >15 µm
    Max. number of inclusions 50 7 0

    As stated by IVSWMA, International Valve Spring Wire Manufacturers Association, it is likely to find occasional inclusions  in  valve  spring  quality  steel of  a  size  larger  than 30 µm.

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Torsions (l=300 mm, min. revs) Reduct. of area (min. %)
    2.00 - 2.50 0.020 2100 - 2200 2 40
    2.51 - 3.20 0.020 2100 - 2200 2 40
    3.21 - 4.00 0.025 2100 - 2200 2 40
    4.01 - 5.00 0.025 2100 - 2200 2 40

    Surface conditions

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – non-destructive testing
    In the standard size range 2.00 - 5.00 mm the wire is tested continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level of ≥ 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.

    Surface condition – end sample test
    The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of the material structure. Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization and surface defects, 0.5% x wire diameter. No complete decarburization allowed.

    Physical properties

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved. Depending on nitriding temperature used later in the spring manufacturing process, this temperature may be decreased.

    Hot presetting

    After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.

    Soft shot peening

    Before the nitriding process a soft shot peening process shall be applied in order to remove the oxide layer on the spring wire surface.

    Nitriding

    Springs of OTEVA® 101 SC must be nitrided to obtain optimum fatigue and relaxation properties. Our recommendation is gas nitriding.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.

    For nitrided springs with an extremely hard surface zone, it is important to use a shot peening media with high hardness.

    Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Spring Conditions For Tests

    Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests (specially designed test spring) Diagram 1 and 2:
    Wire diameter Ø 3.85 mm
    Diameter external 26.95
    Spring length, I0 53.0
    N active 4.15
    Spring index 6.0
    Stress relieving
    Temperature 450°C (790 ±10 °F)
    Time 30 minutes
    Soft shot peened
    Speed 20-30 m/s
    Time 5 min
    Shot size 0.8 mm
    Nitriding Gas nitriding
    Temperature 450-470°C
    Time 5-20 hours
    Aim for surface hardness Min. 850 Hv
    Aim for core hardness Min. 610 Hv
    Compound (white) layer Max. 1 µm.
    Shot peening (triple shot peening for nitrided springs)
    1st treatment Pressure 0.3 MPa with RCW shoot size 0.6 mm (hardness 800 Hv) for 20 minutes.
    2nd treatment Pressure 0.3 MPa with RCW shoot size 0.25 mm (hardness 800 Hv) for 10 minutes.
    3rd treatment Pressure 0.2 MPa with fine shoot size (hardness 700 HV) for 10 minutes.
    Aim for Almen arc-height 0.55 – 0.60 mm
    Hot presetting 1500 N/mm2 (nitrided springs)
    (theoretically set) 1300 N/mm2 (not nitrided springs)
    Temperature 200°C (max. 250°C)
    Time 10 minutes

     

    Relaxation And Fatigue Properties

    In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade are illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test spring design.

    Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss of load) of nitrided springs made from OTEVA® 101 SC wire subjected to static compression at different temperatures, nitrided/not nitrided.

    Standards

    EN 10270-2

  2. OTEVA 70 SC, OTEVA 70 SC PLUS
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    OTEVA 70 SC, OTEVA 70 SC PLUS

    Oil tempered SiCr-alloyed valve spring wire

    OTEVA® 70 SC is a Super Clean steel, especially intended for the manufacture of clutch/ transmission springs with extremely high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at moderately increased working temperature. The wire is manufactured in shaved or unshaved condition (Ø 6.50 – 14.00 mm in unshaved condition subcontracted) in sizes from Ø 0.50 mm to 6.50 mm, or in egg or elliptical shape corresponding to round cross section 2.50 mm to 6.50 mm Other wire sizes and shapes on request.

    OTEVA® 70 SC PLUS is intended for manufacture of valve springs and other springs requiring extremely high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at increased working temperatures. Further information about the approval process for OTEVA SC PLUS is found here.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%)
    0.50 - 0.60 1.20 - 1.60 0.50 - 0.80 0.025 0.020 0.50 - 0.80

    Cleanliness in steel

    The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is inspected for every heat of OTEVA® 70 SCin accordance with the Suzuki Garphyttan method by the steel supplier.

    Before release for production, Suzuki Garphyttan performs non-metallic inclusion inspection for every fifth heat. The criteria for supplier inspection and releasing inspection are the following;

    For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm down to 1 mm below surface. Inspection area: 1 000 mm2.

    Inclusion size, surface 5-10 µm >10-15 µm >15 µm
    Max. number of inclusions 50 7 0

    For OTEVA 70 SC PLUS, every heat is inspected including a SEM-EDS analysis of inclusions > 10µm to verify a Super Clean composition.

    As stated by IVSWMA, International Valve Spring Wire Ma­nu­­fac­turers Association, it is likely to find occasional inclusions  in  valve  spring  quality  steel of  a  size  larger  than 30 µm.

    Mechanical properties

    1) Other wire sizes on request.
    2) Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.
    3) Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one coil does not vary more than 50 N/Mm2.
    4) Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Torsions (l=300 mm, min. revs) Reduct. of area (min. %)
    0.50 - 0.80 0.010 2080 - 2210 6
    0.81 - 1.30 0.015 2080 - 2210 5 50
    1.31 - 1.40 0.015 2080 - 2210 5 50
    1.41 - 1.60 0.020 2080 - 2210 5 50
    1.61 - 2.00 0.020 2010 - 2160 5 50
    2.01 - 2.50 0.020 1960 - 2060 5 50
    2.51 - 3.00 0.020 1910 - 2010 4 50
    3.01 - 3.20 0.020 1910 - 2010 4 45
    3.21 - 3.50 0.025 1910 - 2010 4 45
    3.51 - 4.50 0.025 1860 - 1960 4 45
    4.51 - 5.00 0.025 1810 - 1910 3 45
    5.01 - 5.60 0.030 1810 - 1910 3 40
    5.61 - 6.00 0.035 1760 - 1860 3 40
    6.01 - 6.50 0.035 1760 - 1860 40

    Yield point

    The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the wire.

    Surface conditions

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – non-destructive testing
    In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level of  > 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.

    Surface condition – end sample test
    The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of the material structure.

    Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization and surface defects, 1 % x wire diameter. In shaved condition; for diameters <=2 .00 mm 10 µm, for diameters > 2.00 mm 0.5% x d.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.

    Hot presetting

    After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.

    Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Spring Conditions For Tests

    Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests (specially designed test spring) Diagram 1 and 2:
    Wire size Ø 4.00 mm
    Diameter external 28.00 mm
    Spring length, l0 59.5 mm
    N active 4.80
    Spring index 6.0
    Shot peening Speed 48 m/sec. for 20 minutes, size of shots 0.8 mm
    Hardness of Shot-peening grit (shot): 610-670 Hv
    Aim for Almen arc-height Min. 0.40-0.45 mm
    Hot presetting (theoretically set) 1200 N/mm2
    Temperature 200°C (max. 250°C)
    Time 10 minutes

    Relaxation And Fatigue Properties

    In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade are illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test spring design.

    Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss of load) of springs made from OTEVA® 70 SC wire subjected to static compression at different temperatures.

    Additional

    Additional information

    Delivery forms
    See separate sheet.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN VDSiCr, SIS 142090-05

    Standards

    EN 10270-2, ASTM A877 A, BS 2803 685A55HD, JIS G3561 SWOSC-V

  3. OTEVA 75 SC, OTEVA 75 SC PLUS
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    OTEVA 75 SC, OTEVA 75 SC PLUS

    Oil tempered SiCrV-alloyed high tensile valve spring wire

    OTEVA® 75 SC is a Super Clean steel, especially intended for the manufacture of clutch/ transmission springs with extremely high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at moderately increased working temperatures.

    Manufactured as standard in shaved condition in sizes from Ø 1.60 mm to 6.50 mm, or in egg or elliptical shape corresponding to round cross section 2.50 mm to 6.50 mm. Other wire sizes and shapes on request.

    OTEVA® 75 SC PLUS is intended for manufacture of valve springs and other springs requiring extremely high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at increased working temperatures.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) V (%)
    0.50 - 0.70 1.20 - 1.65 0.50 - 0.80 0.020 0.020 0.50 - 1.00 0.05 - 0.20

    Cleanliness in steel

    The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is inspected for every heat of OTEVA® 75 SC in accordance with the Suzuki Garphyttan method by the steel supplier.

    Before release for production, Suzuki Garphyttan performs non-metallic inclusion inspection for every fifth heat. The criteria for supplier inspection and releasing inspection are the following;

    For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm down to 1 mm below surface. Inspection area: 1 000 mm2.

    Inclusion size, surface 5-10 µm >10-15 µm >15 µm
    Max. number of inclusions 50 7 0

    For OTEVA 75 SC PLUS, every heat is inspected including a SEM-EDS analysis of inclusions > 10µm to verify a Super Clean composition.

    As stated by IVSWMA, International Valve Spring Wire Manufacturers Association, it is likely to find occasional inclusions in valve spring quality steel of a size larger than 30 µm.

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Torsions (l=300 mm, min. revs) Reduct. of area (min. %)
    1.60 - 2.00 0.020 2160 - 2260 5 45
    2.01 - 2.50 0.020 2110 - 2210 5 45
    2.51 - 3.20 0.020 2060 - 2160 5 45
    3.21 - 4.00 0.025 2010 - 2110 4 45
    4.01 - 5.00 0.025 1960 - 2060 3 45
    5.01 - 5.60 0.030 1910 - 2010 3 40
    5.61 - 6.00 0.035 1910 - 20100 3 40
    6.01 - 6.50 0.035 1910 - 2010 35

    Yield point

    The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the wire.

    Surface conditions

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – non-destructive testing
    In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level of ≥ 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.

    Surface condition – end sample test
    The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of the material structure.
    Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization and surface defects, 1 % x wire diameter. In shaved condi-tion; for diameters <=2 .00 mm 10 µm, for diameters > 2.00 mm 0.5% x d.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.

    Hot presetting

    After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.

    Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

     

     

     

     

     

    Spring Conditions For Tests

    Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests (specially designed test spring) Diagram 1 and 2:
    Wire size Ø 4.00 mm
    Diameter external 28.00 mm
    Spring length, l0 59.5 mm
    N active 4.80
    Spring index 6.0
    Stress relieving
    Temperature 420 ±5°C (790 ±10 °F)
    Time 30 minutes
    Shot peening (double shot peening)
    1st treatment Speed 56 m/sec. for 20 minutes, size of shots 0.8 mm
    2nd treatment Speed 30 m/sec. for 10 minutes, size of shots 0.8 mm
    Hardness of Shot-peening grit (shot): 610-670 Hv
    Aim for Almen arc-height Min 0.45 mm
    Hot presetting
    (theoretically set)
    1300 N/mm2
    Temperature 200°C (max. 250°C)
    Time 10 minutes

    Relaxation And Fatigue Properties

    In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade are illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test spring design.

    Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss of load) of springs made from OTEVA® 75 SC wire subjected to static compression at different temperatures.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN VDSiCrV

    Standards

    ASTM A877 B

  4. OTEVA 90 SC, OTEVA 90 SC PLUS
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    OTEVA 90 SC, OTEVA 90 SC PLUS

    Oil tempered SiCrVNi-alloyed ultra-high tensile valve spring wire for
    surface nitriding

    OTEVA® 90 SC is a Super Clean steel, especially intended for the manufacture of clutch/transmission springs with extremely high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at increased working temperatures.

    Manufactured as standard in shaved condition in sizes from Ø 2.00 mm to 6.00 mm, or in egg or elliptical shape corresponding to round cross section 2.50 mm to 6.00 mm. Other wire sizes on request.

    OTEVA® 90 SC PLUS is intended for manufacture of valve springs and other springs requiring extremely high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at increased working temperatures.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) V (%) Ni (%)
    0.50 - 0.70 1.80 - 2.20 0.70 - 1.00 0.020 0.020 0.85 - 1.05 0.05 - 0.15 0.20 - 0.40

    Cleanliness in steel

    The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is inspected for every heat of OTEVA® 90 SC in accordance with the Suzuki Garphyttan method by the steel supplier.

    Before release for production, Suzuki Garphyttan performs non-metallic inclusion inspection for every fifth heat. The criteria for supplier inspection and releasing inspection are the following;

    For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm down to 1 mm below surface. Inspection area: 1 000 mm2.

    Inclusion size, surface 5-10 µm >10-15 µm >15 µm
    Max. number of inclusions 50 7 0

    For OTEVA 90 SC PLUS, every heat is inspected including a SEM-EDS analysis of inclusions > 10µm to verify a Super Clean composition.

    As stated by IVSWMA, International Valve Spring Wire Manufacturers Association, it is likely to find occasional inclusions  in  valve  spring  quality  steel of  a  size  larger  than 30 µm.

    Mechanical properties

    1) Other wire sizes on request.
    2) Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.
    3) Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one coil does not vary more than 50 N/mm2.
    4) Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Torsions (l=300 mm, min. revs) Reduct. of area (min. %) Tensile strength after heat treatment 480C 1h (N/mm²)
    2.00 - 2.50 0.020 2180 - 2280 5 45 -
    2.51 - 3.20 0.020 2130 - 2230 5 45 5 -
    3.21 - 4.00 0.025 2080 - 2180 4 45 -
    4.01 - 5.00 0.025 - 2130 3 45 -
    5.01 - 5.60 0.030 - 2080 3 40 -
    5.61 - 6.00 0.035 - 2080 3 40 -

    Yield point

    The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.8 x tensile strength of the wire. The proof stress will rise above 0.9 x tensile strength after stress relieving the springs.

    Surface conditions

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – non-destructive testing
    In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level of ≥ 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.

    Surface condition – end sample test
    The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of the material structure.
    Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization and surface defects, 1 % x wire diameter. In shaved condi-tion; for diameters <=2 .00 mm 10 µm, for diameters > 2.00 mm 0.5% x d.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved. Depending on nitriding temperature used later in the valve spring manufacturing process, this temperature may be decreased.

    Hot presetting

    After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.

    Soft shot peening

    Before the nitriding process a soft shot peening process shall be applied in order to remove the oxide layer on the spring wire surface.

    Nitriding

    Springs of OTEVA® 90 SC should be nitrided to obtain optimum fatigue and relaxation properties. Our recommendation is gas nitriding.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.

    For nitrided springs with an extremely hard surface zone, it is important to use a shot peening media with high hardness.

    Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Spring Conditions For Tests

    Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests (specially designed test spring) Diagram 1 and 2:
    Wire size Ø 3.85 mm
    Diameter external 26.95 mm
    Spring length, l0 53.0 mm
    N active 4.15
    Spring index 6.0
    Stress relieving  
    Temperature 450 ±5 °C (840 ±10 °F) min. 420 °C (790 ±10 °F) for nitriding
    Time 30 minutes
    Soft shot peened  
    Speed 20-30 m/s
    Time 5 min
    Shot size 0.8 mm
    Nitriding Gas nitriding
    Temperature 450-470°C
    Time 5-20 hours
    Aim for surface hardness Min. 800 Hv
    Aim for core hardness Min. 560 Hv
    Compound (white) layer Max. 1 µm.
    Shot peening (triple shot peening for nitrided springs)  
    1st treatment Pressure 0.3 MPa (~60m/s)* with RCW shot size 0.6 mm (hardness 800 Hv) f or 20 minutes.
    2nd treatment 3rd treatment

    Aim for Almen arc-height
    Pressure 0.3 MPa (~60m/s)* with RCW shot size 0.25 mm (hardness 800 Hv) f or 10 minutes. Pressure 0.2 MPa (~40m/s)* with fine shot size (hardness 700 Hv) for 10 minutes. 0.55 – 0.60 mm
    Hot presetting
    (theoretically set)
    1500 N/mm2 (nitrided springs) 1300 N/mm2 (not nitrided springs)
    Temperature 200°C (max. 250°C)
    Time 10 minutes

    * Pressure setting for an air blast system and the approximate corresponding shot speed for a centrifugal blast wheel (in brackets). 

    Relaxation And Fatigue Properties

    In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade are illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test spring design.

    Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss of load) of springs made from OTEVA® 90 SC wire subjected to static compression at different temperatures, nitrided/not nitrided.

    Standards

    ASTM A877 C

  5. OTEVA 91 SC
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    OTEVA 91 SC

    Oil tempered SiCrVMo-alloyed ultra-high tensile valve spring wire for surface nitriding

    OTEVA® 91 SC is a Super Clean steel, especially intended for the manufacture of clutch/transmission springs with extremely high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at increased working temperatures.
    Manufactured as standard in shaved condition in sizes from Ø 2.00 mm to 6.00 mm, or in egg or elliptical shape corresponding to round cross section 2.50 mm to 6.00 mm. Other wire sizes on request.

    OTEVA® 91 SC PLUS is intended for manufacture of valve springs and other springs requiring extremely high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at increased working temperatures.

    Further information about the approval process for OTEVA SC PLUS is found here.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) V (%) Mo (%)
    0.50 - 0.70 1.80 - 2.20 0.30 - 0.60 0.020 0.025 0.80 - 1.00 0.05 - 0.15 0.05 - 0.15

    Cleanliness in steel

    The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is inspected for every heat of OTEVA® 91 SC in accordance with the Suzuki Garphyttan method by the steel supplier.

    Before release for production, Suzuki Garphyttan performs non-metallic inclusion inspection for every fifth heat. The criteria for supplier inspection and releasing inspection are the following;

    For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm down to 1 mm below surface. Inspection area: 1 000 mm2.

    Inclusion size, surface 5-10 µm >10-15 µm >15 µm
    Max. number of inclusions 50 7 0

    For OTEVA 91 SC PLUS, every heat is inspected including a SEM-EDS analysis of inclusions > 10µm to verify a Super Clean composition.

    As stated by IVSWMA, International Valve Spring Wire Manufacturers Association, it is likely to find occasional inclusions  in  valve  spring  quality  steel of  a  size  larger  than 30 µm.

    Mechanical properties

    1) Other wire sizes on request.
    2) Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.
    3) Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one coil does not vary more than 50 N/mm2.
    4) Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Torsions (l=300 mm, min. revs) Reduct. of area (min. %)
    2.00 - 2.50 0.020 2180 - 2280 5 45
    2.51 - 3.20 0.020 2130 - 2230 5 45
    3.21 - 4.00 0.025 2080 - 2180 4 45
    4.01 - 5.00 0.025 2030 - 2130 3 45
    5.01 - 5.60 0.030 1980 - 2080 3 40
    5.61 - 6.00 0.035 1980 - 2080 3 40

    Yield point

    The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.8 x tensile strength of the wire. The proof stress will rise above 0.9 x tensile strength after stress relieving the springs.

    Surface conditions

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – non-destructive testing
    In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level of ≥ 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.

    Surface condition – end sample test
    The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of the material structure.
    Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburiza-tion and surface defects, 1 % x wire diameter. In shaved condition; for diameters <=2 .00 mm 10 µm, for diameters > 2.00 mm 0.5% x d.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Oil tempered SiCrVMo-alloyed ultra-high tensile valve spring wire for surface nitriding

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved. Depending on nitriding temperature used later in the valve spring manufacturing process, this temperature may be decreased.

    Hot presetting

    After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.

    Soft shot peening

    Before the nitriding process a soft shot peening process shall be applied in order to remove the oxide layer on the spring wire surface.

    Nitriding

    Springs of OTEVA® 91 SC should be nitrided to obtain optimum fatigue and relaxation properties. Our recommendation is gas nitriding.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.

    For nitrided springs with an extremely hard surface zone, it is important to use a shot peening media with high hardness. Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Spring Conditions For Tests

    Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests (specially designed test spring) Diagram 1 and 2:
    Wire size Ø 3.85 mm
    Diameter external 26.95 mm
    Spring length, l0 53.0 mm
    N active 4.15
    Spring index 6.0
    Stress relieving  
    Temperature 450 ±5 °C (840 ±10 °F) min. 420 °C (790 ±10 °F) for nitriding
    Time 30 minutes
    Soft shot peened  
    Speed 20-30 m/s
    Time 5 min
    Shot size 0.8 mm
    Nitriding Gas nitriding
    Temperature 450-470°C
    Time 5-20 hours
    Aim for surface hardness Min. 800 Hv
    Aim for core hardness Min. 560 Hv
    Compound (white) layer Max. 1 µm.
    Shot peening (triple shot peening for nitrided springs)  
    1st treatment Pressure 0.3 MPa (~60m/s)* with RCW shot size 0.6 mm (hardness 800 Hv) for 20 minutes.
    2nd treatment 3rd treatment

    Aim for Almen arc-height
    Pressure 0.3 MPa (~60m/s)* with RCW shot size 0.25 mm (hardness 800 Hv) for 10 minutes. Pressure 0.2 MPa (~40m/s)* with fine shot size (hardness 700 Hv) for 10 minutes. 0.55 – 0.60 mm
    Hot presetting
    (theoretically set)
    1500 N/mm2 (nitrided springs) 1300 N/mm2 (not nitrided springs)
    Temperature 200°C (max. 250°C)
    Time 10 minutes

    * Pressure setting for an air blast system and the approximate corresponding shot speed for a centrifugal blast wheel (in brackets).

    Relaxation And Fatigue Properties

    In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade are illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test spring design.

    Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss of load) of springs made from OTEVA® 91 SC wire subjected to static compression at different temperatures, nitrided/not nitrided.

    Standards

    ASTM A877 D

  6. OTEVA 96 SC, OTEVA 96 SC PLUS
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    OTEVA 96 SC, OTEVA 96 SC PLUS

    Oil tempered SiCrVMo-alloyed ultra-high tensile valve spring wire for
    surface nitriding

    OTEVA® 96 SC is a Super Clean steel, especially intended for the manufacture of clutch/transmission springs with extremely high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at increased working temperatures.

    Manufactured as standard in shaved condition in sizes from Ø 2.00 mm to 6.00 mm, or in egg or elliptical shape corresponding to round cross section 2.50 mm to 6.00 mm. Other wire sizes on request.

    OTEVA® 96 SC PLUS is intended for manufacture of valve springs and other springs requiring extremely high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at increased working temperatures.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) V (%) Mo (%)
    0.60 - 0.70 2.00 - 2.20 0.30 - 0.60 0.020 0.025 0.90 - 1.00 0.10 - 0.15 0.10 - 0.15

    Cleanliness in steel

    The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is inspected for every heat in accordance with the Suzuki Garphyttan method by the steel supplier.

     Before release for production, Suzuki Garphyttan performs non-metallic inclusion inspection for every fifth heat. The criteria for supplier inspection and releasing inspection are the following;

    For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm down to 1 mm below surface. Inspection area 1 000 mm2.

    Inclusion size, surface 5-10 µm >10-15 µm >15 µm
    Max. number of inclusions 50 7 0

    For OTEVA 96 SC PLUS, every heat is inspected including a SEM-EDS analysis of inclusions > 10µm to verify a Super Clean composition.

    As stated by IVSWMA, International Valve Spring Wire Manufacturers Association, it is likely to find occasional inclusions in valve spring quality steel of a size larger than 30 µm.

    Mechanical properties

    1) Other wire sizes on request.
    2) Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.
    3) Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one coil does not vary more than 50 N/mm2.
    4) Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Torsions (l=300 mm, min. revs) Reduct. of area (min. %)
    2.00 - 2.50 0.020 2180 - 2280 5 45
    2.51 - 3.20 0.020 2130 - 2230 5 45
    3.21 - 4.00 0.025 2080 - 2180 4 45
    4.01 - 5.00 0.025 2030 - 2130 3 45
    5.01 - 5.60 0.030 1980 - 2080 3 40
    5.61 - 6.00 0.035 1980 - 2080 3 40

    Yield point

    The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.8 x tensile strength of the wire. The proof stress will rise above 0.9 x tensile strength after stress relieving the springs.

    Surface conditions

    Surface condition

    Surface condition - non-destructive testing
    In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level of ≥ 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.

    Surface condition - end sample test
    The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of the material structure. Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization and surface defects, 1 % x wire diameter. In shaved condition; for diameters <=2 .00 mm 10 µm, for diameters > 2.00 mm 0.5% x d.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved. Depending on nitriding temperature used later in the valve spring manufacturing process, this tem-perature may be decreased.

    Hot presetting

    After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.

    Soft shot peening

    Before the nitriding process a soft shot peening process shall be applied in order to remove the oxide layer on the spring wire surface.

    Nitriding

    Springs of OTEVA® 96 SC should be nitrided to obtain optimum fatigue and relaxation properties. Our recommendation is gas nitriding.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.
    For nitrided springs with an extremely hard surface zone, it is important to use a shot peening media with high hardness.
    Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Spring Conditions For Tests

    Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests (specially designed test spring) Diagram 1 and 2:
    Wire size Diameter external Spring length, l0 N active Ø 3.85 mm 26.95 mm 53.0 mm 4.15
    Spring index 6.0
    Stress relieving  
    Temperature 450 ±5 °C (840 ±10 °F) min. 420 °C (790 ±10 °F) for nitriding
    Time 30 minutes
    Soft shot peened  
    Speed 20-30 m/s
    Time 5 min
    Shot size 0.8 mm
    Nitriding Gas nitriding
    Temperature 450-470°C
    Time 5-20 hours
    Aim for surface hardness Min. 800 Hv
    Aim for core hardness Min. 560 Hv
    Compound (white) layer Max. 1 µm.
    Shot peening (triple shot peening for nitrided springs)  
    1st treatment Pressure 0.3 MPa (~60m/s)* with RCW shot size 0.6 mm (hardness 800 Hv) for 20 minutes.
    2nd treatment 3rd treatment
    Aim for Almen arc-height
    Pressure 0.3 MPa (~60m/s)* with RCW shot size 0.25 mm (hardness 800 Hv) for 10 minutes. Pressure 0.2 MPa (~40m/s)* with fine shot size (hardness 700 Hv) for 10 minutes.. 0.55 – 0.60 mm
    Hot presetting
    (theoretically set)
    1500 N/mm2 (nitrided springs) 1300 N/mm2 (not nitrided springs)
    Temperature 200°C (max. 250°C)
    Time 10 minutes

    * Pressure setting for an air blast system and the approximate corresponding shot speed for a centrifugal blast wheel (in brackets).

    Relaxation And Fatigue Properties

    In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade are illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test spring design.

    Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss of load) of springs made from OTEVA® 96 SC wire subjected to static compression at different temperatures, nitrided/not nitrided.

    Standards

    EN 10270-2

STATO

  1. STATO 70
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    STATO 70

    Oil tempered SiCr-alloyed spring wire

    STATO 70 is especially intended for the manufacture of springs exposed to static or moderately high fatigue stresses. The material has good relaxation properties.

    The wire is manufactured in sizes from Ø 0.50 mm to 7.00 mm. Other wire sizes on request.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%)
    0.50 - 0.60 1.20 - 1.60 0.50 - 0.80 0.025 0.025 0.50 - 0.80

    Mechanical properties

    1) Other wire sizes on request.
    2) Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.
    3) Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one coil does not vary more than 70 N/mm2.

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Reduct. of area (min. %)
    0.50 - 0.80 0.010 2100 - 2300
    0.81 - 1.00 0.015 2100 - 2300 50
    1.01 - 1.40 0.020 2060 - 2260 50
    1.41 - 1.60 0.020 2040 - 2220 50
    1.61 - 2.00 0.025 2000 - 2180 40
    2.01 - 2.50 0.025 1970 - 2140 50
    2.51 - 2.70 0.025 1950 - 2100 50
    2.71 - 3.00 0.030 1910 - 2100 50
    3.01 - 3.50 0.030 1900 - 2060 45
    3.51 - 4.00 0.030 1870 - 2030 45
    4.01 - 4.50 0.035 1860 - 2020 45
    4.51 - 5.00 0.035 1830 - 1980 45
    5.01 - 5.60 0.035 1800 - 1950 40
    5.61 - 6.50 0.040 1780 - 1930 40
    6.51 - 7.00 0.040 1740 - 1890 35

    Yield point

    The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the wire.

    Surface conditions

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – end sample test

    The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of the material structure.

    Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization and surface defects, 1.5% x wire diameter. No complete decarburization allowed.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.

    Hot presetting

    After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment. Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN FDSiCrV, SIS 142090-05

    Standards

    ASTM A401, BS 2803 685A55HS, JIS G3561 SWOSC-V

  2. STATO 75
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    STATO 75

    Oil tempered SiCrV-alloyed spring wire

    STATO 75 is especially intended for the manufacture of springs exposed to static or moderately high fatigue stresses. The material has good relaxation properties.

    The wire is manufactured in sizes from Ø 2.00 mm to 7.00 mm. Other wire sizes on request.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) V (%)
    0.50 - 0.70 1.20 - 1.65 0.50 - 0.80 0.025 0.025 0.50 - 1.00 0.05 - 0.20

    Mechanical properties

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Reduct. of area (min. %)
    2.00 - 2.50 0.020 2110 - 2210 45
    2.51 - 3.20 0.020 2060 - 2160 45
    3.21 - 4.00 0.025 2010 - 2110 45
    4.01 - 5.00 0.025 1960 - 2060 45
    5.01 - 5.60 0.030 1910 - 2010 40
    5.61 - 6.50 0.035 1910 - 2010 40
    6.51 - 7.00 0.035 1860 - 2010 40

    Yield point

    The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the wire.

    Surface conditions

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – end sample test
    The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of the material structure.

    Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization and surface defects, 1.5% x wire diameter. No complete decarburization allowed.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    About 206 kN/mm2

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    About 79.5 kN/mm2

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.

    Hot presetting

    After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment. Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN FDSiCrV

    Standards

    EN 10270-2

SWOSC

  1. SWOSC-V
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    SWOSC-V

    Oil tempered SiCr-alloyed valve spring wire
    Only manufactured in China

    SWOSC-V is a Super Clean steel, especially intended for the manufacture of valve springs and other springs requiring high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at moderately increased working temperature.

    The wire is manufactured in shaved condition in sizes from Ø 1.60 mm to 6.50 mm, or in egg or elliptical shape (corresponding to round cross section 2.50 mm to 6.50 mm). Other wire sizes on request.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%)
    0.50 - 0.60 1.20 - 1.60 0.50 - 0.80 0.025 0.020 0.50 - 0.80

    Cleanliness in steel

    The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is inspected for every heat of SWOSC-V in accordance with the Suzuki Garphyttan method by the steel supplier.

    Before release for production, Suzuki Garphyttan performs non-metallic inclusion inspection for every fifth heat. The criteria for supplier inspection and releasing inspection are the following;

    For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm down to 1 mm below surface. Inspection area: 1 000 mm2.

    Inclusion size, surface 5-10 µm >10-15 µm >15 µm
    Max. number of inclusions 50 7 0
    For SWOSC-V, every heat is inspected including a SEM-EDS analysis of inclusions > 10µm to verify a Super Clean composition.
     

    As stated by IVSWMA, International Valve Spring Wire Ma­nu­­fac­turers Association, it is likely to find occasional inclusions in valve spring quality steel of a size larger than 30 µm.

    Mechanical properties

    1) Other wire sizes on request.
    2) Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.
    3) Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one coil does not vary more than 50 N/Mm2.
    4) Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Torsions (l=300 mm, min. revs) Reduct. of area (min. %)
    1.60 - 2.00 0.020 2010 - 2160 5 50
    2.01 - 2.50 0.020 1960 - 2060 5 50
    2.51 - 3.00 0.020 1910 - 2010 4 50
    3.01 - 3.20 0.020 1910 - 2010 4 45
    3.21 - 3.50 0.025 1910 - 2010 4 45
    3.51 - 4.50 0.025 1860 - 1960 4 45
    4.51 - 5.00 0.025 1810 - 1910 3 45
    5.01 - 5.60 0.030 1810 - 1910 3 40
    5.61 - 6.00 0.035 1760 - 1860 3 40
    6.01 - 6.50 0.035 1760 - 1860 40

    Yield point

    The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the wire.

    Surface conditions

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – non-destructive testing
    In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level of ≥ 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.

    Surface condition – end sample test
    The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of the material structure.

    Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization and surface defects, 1 % x wire diameter. In shaved condition; for diameters <=2 .00 mm 10 µm, for diameters > 2.00 mm 0.5% x d.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.

    Hot presetting

    After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.

    Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Spring Conditions For Tests

    Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests (specially designed test spring) Diagram 1 and 2:
    Wire size Ø 4.00 mm
    Diameter external 28.00 mm
    Spring length, l0 59.5 mm
    N active 4.80
    Spring index 6.0
    Shot peening Speed 48 m/sec. for 20 minutes, size of shots 0.8 mm
    Hardness of Shot-peening grit (shot): 610-670 Hv
    Aim for Almen arc-height Min. 0.40-0.45 mm
    Hot presetting
    (theoretically set)
    1200 N/mm2
    Temperature 200°C (max. 250°C)
    Time 10 minutes

    The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is inspected for every heat of SWOSC-V in accordance with the Suzuki Garphyttan method by the steel supplier. Before release for production, Suzuki Garphyttan performs non-metallic inclusion inspection for every fifth heat. The criteria for supplier inspection and releasing inspection are the following; For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm down to 1 mm below surface. Inspection area: 1 000 mm2.

    Inclusion size, surface 5-10 µm >10-15 µm >15 µm
    Max. number of inclusions 50 7 0

    For SWOSC-V, every heat is inspected including a SEM-EDS analysis of inclusions > 10µm to verify a Super Clean composition.

    As stated by IVSWMA, International Valve Spring Wire Ma­nu­­fac­turers Association, it is likely to find occasional inclusions in valve spring quality steel of a size larger than 30 µm.
     

    Relaxation And Fatigue Properties

    In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade are illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test spring design.

    Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss of load) of springs made from SWOSC-V wire subjected to static compression at different temperatures.

    Additional

    Additional information

    Delivery forms

     

    See separate sheet.

     

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN VDSiCr, SIS 142090-05

    Standards

    EN 10270-2, ASTM A877, BS 2803 685A55HD, JIS G3561 SWOSC-V

  2. SWOSC-VHV
    Suzuki Garphyttan www.suzuki-garphyttan.com

    SWOSC-VHV

    Oil tempered SiCrV-alloyed high tensile valve spring wire
    Only manudactured in China

    SWOSC-VHV is a Super Clean steel, especially intended for the manufacture of valve springs and other springs requiring high fatigue properties and good relaxation properties at moderately increased working temperatures.

    The wire is manufactured in shaved condition in sizes from Ø 1.60 mm to 6.50 mm, or in egg or elliptical shape (corresponding to round cross section 2.50 mm to 6.50 mm). Other wire sizes on request.

    Chemical composition

    C (%) Si (%) Mn (%) P max. (%) S max. (%) Cr (%) V (%)
    0.50 - 0.70 1.20 - 1.65 0.50 - 0.80 0.020 0.020 0.50 - 1.00 0.05 - 0.20

    Cleanliness in steel

    The presence of non-metallic inclusions in the wire rod is inspected for every heat of SWOSC-VHV in accordance with the Suzuki Garphyttan method by the steel supplier.

    Before release for production, Suzuki Garphyttan performs non-metallic inclusion inspection for every fifth heat. The criteria for supplier inspection and releasing inspection are the following;

    For wire rod samples: Inclusion size max. 15 µm down to 1 mm below surface. Inspection area: 1 000 mm2.

    Inclusion size, surface 5-10 µm >10-15 µm >15 µm
    Max. number of inclusions 50 7 0

    For SWOSC-VHV, every heat is inspected including a SEM-EDS analysis of inclusions > 10µm to verify a Super Clean composition.

    As stated by IVSWMA, International Valve Spring Wire Manufacturers Association, it is likely to find occasional inclusions in valve spring quality steel of a size larger than 30 µm.

    Mechanical properties

    1)   Other wire sizes on request.
    2)   Ovality, i. e. the difference between the largest and smallest dimension of a cross section, is maximum half the tolerance range.
    3)   Conversion from tensile strength to hardness values can be calculated in standard ISO EN 18265. The tensile strength Rm within one coil does not vary more than 50 N/mm2.
    4)  Torsion test is carried out for assessing deformability. The fracture of the torsion test piece shall be smooth and perpendicular to the wire axis. The rupture shall show no longitudinal cracks.

    For round wire

    Diameter (mm) Tolerance (± mm) Tensile Strength (N/mm²) Torsions (l=300 mm, min. revs) Reduct. of area (min. %)
    1.60 - 2.00 0.020 2160 - 2260 5 45
    2.01 - 2.50 0.020 2110 - 2210 5 45
    2.51 - 3.20 0.020 2060 - 2160 5 45
    3.21 - 4.00 0.025 2010 - 2110 4 45
    4.01 - 5.00 0.025 1960 - 2060 3 45
    5.01 - 5.60 0.030 1910 - 2010 3 40
    5.61 - 6.00 0.035 1910 - 20100 3 40
    6.01 - 6.50 0.035 1910 - 2010 35

    Yield point

    The proof stress Rp0.2 is min. 0.9 x tensile strength of the wire.

    Surface conditions

    Surface condition

    Surface condition – non-destructive testing
    In the standard size range 2.00 - 6.00 mm the wire is tested continuously in Eddy Current equipment to a surface level of ≥ 40 microns. Other wire sizes on request.

    Surface condition – end sample test
    The wire is end sample tested by means of etch testing and binocular inspection as well as microscopical inspection of the material structure.
    Max. permissible depth of partial surface decarburization and surface defects, 1 % x wire diameter. In shaved condition; for diameters <=2 .00 mm 10 µm, for diameters > 2.00 mm 0.5% x d.

    Physical properties

    E and G modulus of elasticity

    206 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    E and G modulus of shear

    79.5 kN/mm²

    kN/mm²

    Recommendations

    Heat treatment

    As soon as possible after coiling, the springs should be stress relieved.

    Hot presetting

    After shot peening, the springs should be hot preset or stress relieved. In order to reach optimum fatigue and relaxation properties, the springs must be preset at an appropriate stress.

    Shot peening

    In order to obtain optimum fatigue properties, the process time should be adjusted to get a complete treatment. Size of shots should be adapted to wire dimension, pitch and shot peening equipment.

    Shot peening of the inside of the spring coils is particularly critical.

    Spring Conditions For Tests

    Spring conditions for fatigue and relaxation tests (specially designed test spring) Diagram 1 and 2:
    Wire size Ø 4.00 mm
    Diameter external 28.00 mm
    Spring length, l0 59.5 mm
    N active 4.80
    Spring index 6.0
    Stress relieving  
    Temperature 420 ±5°C (790 ±10 °F)
    Time 30 minutes
    Shot peening (double shot peening)  
    1st treatment Speed 56 m/sec. for 20 minutes, size of shots 0.8 mm
    2nd treatment Speed 30 m/sec. for 10 minutes, size of shots 0.8 mm
    Hardness of Shot-peening grit (shot): 610-670 Hv
    Aim for Almen arc-height Min 0.45 mm
    Hot presetting
    (theoretically set)
    1300 N/mm2
    Temperature 200°C (max. 250°C)
    Time 10 minutes

    Relaxation And Fatigue Properties

    In diagram 1 the fatigue properties of this grade are illustrated in a Goodman-diagram, based on a special test spring design.

    Diagram 2 shows the relaxation properties (loss of load) of springs made from SWOSC-VHV wire subjected to static compression at different temperatures.

    Nearest equivalent steel grades

    EN VDSiCrV

    Standards

    EN 10270-2